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  1. Rules and Decisions in Primate Brain: The Prefrontal Cortex 22 items
    1. Very general introductory reference 2 items
      This is a key reference. The following chapters are excellent overviews of some of the main topics in the lecture, and the other chapters provide an opportunity for you to gain an in-depth understanding of the lecture material. This is an in-depth view of the prefrontal cortex. Chapters 1, 7, 8, 9, 10 are highly recommended. The other chapters present a very comprehensive account of prefrontal contributions to cognition and serve as excellent additional reading.
    2. Hierarchical Information Processing 6 items
      1. The Architecture of Cognitive Control in the Human Prefrontal Cortex - Etienne Koechlin, Chrystèle Ody, Frédérique Kouneiher 2003

        Article Essential

      2. An Information Theoretical Approach to Prefrontal Executive Function - Etienne Koechlin, Christopher Summerfield 2007

        Article Recommended

    3. Bridging Temporal Gaps 5 items
      1. Active Maintenance in Prefrontal Area 46 Creates Distractor-Resistant Memory - Katsuyuki Sakai, James B. Rowe, Richard E. Passingham 2002

        Article Essential

      2. The Prefrontal Cortex: Response Selection or Maintenance Within Working Memory? - James B. Rowe, Ivan Toni, Oliver Josephs, Richard S. J. Frackowiak 2000

        Article Recommended

    4. Attention to Action 4 items
      1. Changes in the Human Brain during Rhythm Learning - N. Ramnani, R. E. Passingham 2001

        Article Recommended

      2. Attention to Action - R. E. Passingham, D. Weinberger, M. Petrides 1996

        Article Recommended

    5. Rules and Categorisation 5 items
      1. The Prefrontal Cortex: Categories, Concepts and Cognition - Earl K. Miller, David J. Freedman, Jonathan D. Wallis 2002

        Article Essential

      2. Categorical Representation of Visual Stimuli in the Primate Prefrontal Cortex - David J. Freedman, Maximilian Riesenhuber, Tomaso Poggio, Earl K. Miller 2001

        Article Essential

  2. Thinking Fast, Thinking Slow: Cerebellar Contributions to Mental Skills 31 items
    1. Important Reviews 8 items
      1. The Secret of You - Caroline Williams 2018

        Article Recommended An easy to read introduction in a popular science magazine. Click the link to access via Nexis.

      2. The Primate Cortico-Cerebellar System: Anatomy and Function - Narender Ramnani 2006

        Article Essential This article summarises a large part of this lecture, but obviously does not cover research after 2006.

      3. Cerebellar Learning - Narender Ramnani 2014

        Book Further A series of state-of-the-art chapters that cover cerebellar learning from the perspectives of cellular and molecular mechanisms, computation, through to systems level accounts. Some of it is very detailed, but worth reading if you would like to understand the topic in depth. Excellent further reading, but Chapter 10 is recommended reading (see Ramnani (2014) below).

      4. Automatic and Controlled Processing in the Corticocerebellar System - Narender Ramnani 2014

        Chapter Recommended This is a more recent review.

      5. Cerebellum and Nonmotor Function - Peter L. Strick, Richard P. Dum, Julie A. Fiez 2009

        Article Recommended

      6. Cerebellum and Nonmotor Function - Peter L. Strick, Richard P. Dum, Julie A. Fiez 2009

        Article Recommended

      7. Cognitive and Language Functions of the Human Cerebellum - Henrietta C. Leiner, Alan L. Leiner, Robert S. Dow 1993

        Article Recommended

    2. Anatomical Evidence from Strick Lab 3 items
    3. Anatomical and Functional Evidence from Ramnani Lab 8 items
      1. Cerebellar Contributions to Working Memory - A. L. Hayter, D. W. Langdon, N. Ramnani 2007

        Article Further

      2. Cerebellum and Cognition: Evidence for the Encoding of Higher Order Rules - J. H. Balsters, C. D. Whelan, I. H. Robertson, N. Ramnani 2013

        Article Further

      3. Distinct and Overlapping Functional Zones in the Cerebellum Defined by Resting State Functional Connectivity - Jill X. O'Reilly, Christian F. Beckmann, Valentina Tomassini, Narender Ramnani 2010-4

        Article Recommended

    4. Articles by Glickstein (Arguments Against Cerebellar Contributions to Cognition) 4 items
      1. Cerebellum: History - M. Glickstein, P. Strata, J. Voogd 2009

        Article Further

    5. Functional Evidence 5 items
      1. Attentional Activation of the Cerebellum Independent of Motor Involvement - Greg Allen, Richard B. Buxton, Eric C. Wong, Eric Courchesne 1997

        Article Recommended

      2. Load- and Practice-Dependent Increases in Cerebro-Cerebellar Activation in Verbal Working Memory: An fMRI Study - Matthew P. Kirschen, S. H. Annabel Chen, Pamela Schraedley-Desmond, John E. Desmond 2005

        Article Recommended

      3. Load- and Practice-Dependent Increases in Cerebro-Cerebellar Activation in Verbal Working Memory: An fMRI Study - Matthew P. Kirschen, S.H. Annabel Chen, Pamela Schraedley-Desmond, John E. Desmond 2005

        Article Further

    6. Lesion Evidence 3 items
  3. A Tour of the Human Brain: Neuroanatomy Practical Tutorial 2 items
    1. Surface Anatomy - Henri M. Duvernoy 1999

      Chapter Recommended Printouts of this chapter will be available for reference on the day (one per group). See the Moodle section for further details.

    2. 3.1 Surface Views of the Atlas Brain

      Chapter Further The colour coding in this brain atlas will give you a better idea of the relations between 3D organisation and serial sections through the human brain.

  4. Cortical Reorganisation: Cortical Maps and Phantom Limbs 15 items
    1. Main Reading 12 items
      1. General Principles of Sensory Processing, Touch, and Pain - S. Marc Breedlove, Neil V. Watson 2013

        Chapter Recommended Chapter 8. Particularly pages 224-234 and 239-247.

      2. Massive Cortical Reorganization After Sensory Deafferentation in Adult Macaques - Tim P. Pons, Preston E. Garraghty, Alexander K. Ommaya, Jon H. Kaas 1991

        Article Essential

      3. Cortical Plasticity: From Synapses to Maps - Dean V. Buonomano, Michael M. Merzenich 1998

        Article Essential

      4. Phantom Limb Pain: A Case of Maladaptive CNS Plasticity? - Herta Flor, Lone Nikolajsen, Troels Staehelin Jensen 2006

        Article Recommended

      5. Face or Hand, Not Both - Alessandro Farnè, Alice C Roy, Pascal Giraux, Jean M Dubernard 2002

        Article Recommended

      6. Re-Emergence of Hand-Muscle Representations in Human Motor Cortex After Hand Allograft - Claudia D. Vargas, Antoine Aballéa, Érika C. Rodrigues, Karen T. Reilly 2009

        Article Recommended

      7. Cortical Reorganization in Motor Cortex After Graft of Both Hands - Pascal Giraux, Angela Sirigu, Fabien Schneider, Jean-Michel Dubernard 2001

        Article Essential

    2. Wider Reading 3 items
      1. Map Plasticity in Somatosensory Cortex - Daniel E. Feldman, Michael Brecht 2005

        Article Further

  5. Brain Waves 22 items
    1. Further Reading and Learning 22 items
      1. General Further Reading 7 items
        1. EEG and MEG Data Analysis in SPM8 - Vladimir Litvak, Jérémie Mattout, Stefan Kiebel, Christophe Phillips 2011

          Article Further

      2. Further Viewing 8 items
        Beware! there are a lot of videos on youtube with information that is OUTRIGHT WRONG. Sometimes it's because of misunderstandings. More often, it's because someone wants to sell pseudo-scientific new age meditation stuff. Here are some examples of videos that are more worth your time.
        1. Introduction to Brain Waves 2014

          Audio-visual document Further Different frequency bands.

        2. Neurexpert - The EEG and Gamma Oscillations 2015

          Audio-visual document Further Describes a spectrum and how it works.

        3. Sleep Basics: Wave Form and Sleep Stages 2013

          Audio-visual document Further Sleep stages and oscillations.

        4. Brain Oscillations: A Video Quick Guide 2012

          Audio-visual document Further Cool research at Glasgow on oscillations.

        5. Oscillating Neural Network Demonstration 2015

          Audio-visual document Further Bob Desimone (famous primate neurophysiologist) and a somewhat cryptic example of oscillators.

        6. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - YouTube

          Audio-visual document Further Peter Brown from UCL reviews research on beta in Parkinson’s. His lecture is even drier than mine (believe it or not) and the talk has some technical bits, but this talk is much more approachable than any journal article and this guy is one of the world leaders in this area.

        7. Oscillatory Neuronal Activity Patterns in Parkinson’s Disease - Thomas Wichmann 2014

          Article Further A review of research on Parkinson’s oscillations (long and detailed but lots of it is appropriate to third-year neuroscience students)

      3. More Advanced Material 7 items
        1. Theta Oscillations and Their Role in Creating Place and Grid Cell Representations | John O'Keefe 2014

          Audio-visual document Further John O’Keefe won the Noble Prize, in part, for his work on how theta oscillations in the hippocampus encode navigation through space! Here he is, describing his Noble-Prize winning work. It’s a bit difficult but super important and influential!

        2. Jan’s Interview With Wolf Singer (Full-Length) on Vimeo 2010

          Audio-visual document Further Wolf Singer, the famous researcher who first promoted the oscillatory solution to the “binding problem”, talking about his work.

        3. Fundamentals of Neuronal Oscillations and Synchrony 2015

          Audio-visual document Further Good overview from a research institute at Glasgow well known for its oscillations work.

        4. Fundamentals of Neuronal Oscillations and Synchrony 2015

          Audio-visual document Further Good overview from a research institute at Glasgow well known for its oscillations work.

        5. MEG and Neural Oscillations in ScZ: A Translational Perspective 2016

          Audio-visual document Further Glasgow again. Peter Ulhaas. Same guy who write the schizophrenia review paper that I recommended on my recommended reading slide. Role of neural oscillations in schizophrenia. A bit advanced though.

        6. Synchronized Neural Oscillations in the Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia 2008

          Audio-visual document Further Shorter Peter Ulhaas talk on schizophrenia.

  6. Nervous System Damage I: Parkinson's Disease 16 items
    1. Modulation of Movement by the Basal Ganglia - Dale Purves 2008

      Chapter Essential This is an important reference for helping you to develop a basic understanding, and then to move to a higher level.

    2. Translational Principles of Deep Brain Stimulation - Morten L. Kringelbach, Ned Jenkinson, Sarah L.F. Owen, Tipu Z. Aziz 2007

      Article Recommended

    3. Cost of Disorders of the Brain in Europe 2010 - Anders Gustavsson, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Bengt Jönsson, Jes Olesen 2011

      Article Further

    4. Reversal of Experimental Parkinsonism by Lesions of the Subthalamic Nucleus - Hagai Bergman, Thomas Wichmann, Mahlon R. DeLong 1990

      Article Essential

    5. A Tale on Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease - Erwan Bezard, Serge Przedborski 2011

      Article Recommended

    6. Milestones in Research on the Pathophysiology of Parkinson's Disease - Thomas Wichmann, Mahlon R. DeLong, Jorge Guridi, Jose A. Obeso 2011

      Article Recommended

    7. The 6-Hydroxydopamine Model: News from the Past - Fabio Blandini, Marie-Therese Armentero, Emilia Martignoni 2008

      Article Essential

    8. Chronic Parkinsonism in Humans Due to a Product of Meperidine-Analog Synthesis - J. William Langston, Philip Ballard, James W. Tetrud, Ian Irwin 1983

      Article Recommended

    9. Unilateral Subthalamotomy in the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease - N. K. Patel, P. Heywood, K. O'Sullivan, R. McCarter 2003

      Article Recommended

    10. Five-Year Follow-up of Bilateral Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus in Advanced Parkinson's Disease - Paul Krack, Alina Batir, Nadège Van Blercom, Stephan Chabardes 2003

      Article Recommended

  7. Rehabilitation I: Neural Transplants - Rewiring the Brain 15 items
    1. Stem Cells

      Audio-visual document Further

    2. Neurogenesis in Adult Subventricular Zone - Arturo Alvarez-Buylla 2002

      Article Recommended

    3. Directed Conversion of Alzheimer's Disease Patient Skin Fibroblasts into Functional Neurons - Liang Qiang, Ryousuke Fujita, Toru Yamashita, Sergio Angulo 2011

      Article Further NOTE: I would have recommended this, but only include it here to show you an example of a paper that has been retracted. Just a lesson in what can happen in the world of science and publishing!

    4. Embryonic Stem Cells Develop Into Functional Dopaminergic Neurons After Transplantation in a Parkinson Rat Model - Lars M. Björklund, Rosario Sánchez-Pernaute, Sangmi Chung, Therese Andersson 2002

      Article Essential

    5. Cell Transplantation Therapy for Stroke - T. Bliss, R. Guzman, M. Daadi, G. K. Steinberg 2007

      Article Recommended

    6. Dopamine Release From Nigral Transplants Visualized in Vivo in a Parkinson's Patient - Paola Piccini, David J. Brooks, Anders Björklund, Roger N. Gunn 1999

      Article Essential

    7. Reestablishment of Damaged Adult Motor Pathways by Grafted Embryonic Cortical Neurons - Afsaneh Gaillard, Laetitia Prestoz, Brigitte Dumartin, Anne Cantereau 2007

      Article Essential

    8. Neural Grafting in Parkinson’s Disease - Patrik Brundin, Roger A. Barker, Malin Parmar

      Article Recommended

  8. Nervous System Damage II: Stroke 14 items
    1. Activity in the Peri-Infarct Rim in Relation to Recovery From Stroke - S. C. Cramer, R. Shah, J. Juranek, K. R. Crafton 2006

      Article Essential

    2. Neural Substrates for the Effects of Rehabilitative Training on Motor Recovery After Ischemic Infarct - Randolph J. Nudo, Birute M. Wise, Frank SiFuentes, Garrett W. Milliken 1996

      Article Essential

    3. Motor Cortex Plasticity During Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy in Stroke Patients - J. Liepert, W. H. R. Miltner, H. Bauder, M. Sommer 1998

      Article Recommended

    4. Stroke Rehabilitation Patients, Practice, and Outcomes: Is Earlier and More Aggressive Therapy Better? - Susan D. Horn, Gerben DeJong, Randall J. Smout, Julie Gassaway 2005

      Article Recommended

    5. Is Environmental Enrichment Ready for Clinical Application in Human Post-stroke Rehabilitation? - Matthew W. McDonald, Kathryn S. Hayward, Ingrid C. M. Rosbergen, Matthew S. Jeffers 2018

      Article Recommended A good review on environmental enrichment and stroke recovery mechanisms

  9. Rehabilitation II: Brain-Machine Interfaces 17 items
    1. Review Articles 5 items
      1. Brain-Controlled Interfaces: Movement Restoration with Neural Prosthetics - Andrew B. Schwartz, X. Tracy Cui, Douglas J. Weber, Daniel W. Moran 2006

        Article Essential

      2. Opinion: What Blindness Can Tell Us About Seeing Again: Merging Neuroplasticity and Neuroprostheses - Lotfi B. Merabet, Joseph F. Rizzo, Amir Amedi, David C. Somers 2005

        Article Recommended

    2. Papers 12 items
      1. Active Tactile Exploration Using a Brain–Machine–Brain Interface - Joseph E. O’Doherty, Mikhail A. Lebedev, Peter J. Ifft, Katie Z. Zhuang 2011

        Article Recommended

      2. Cortical Control of a Prosthetic Arm for Self-Feeding - Meel Velliste, Sagi Perel, M. Chance Spalding, Andrew S. Whitford 2008

        Article Essential

      3. Real-Time Prediction of Hand Trajectory by Ensembles of Cortical Neurons in Primates - Miguel A. L. Nicolelis, Johan Wessberg, Christopher R. Stambaugh, Jerald D. Kralik 2000

        Article Recommended

      4. Neuronal Ensemble Control of Prosthetic Devices by a Human With Tetraplegia - Leigh R. Hochberg, Mijail D. Serruya, Gerhard M. Friehs, Jon A. Mukand 2006

        Article Essential

      5. Brain-Machine Interface: Instant Neural Control of a Movement Signal - Mijail D. Serruya, Nicholas G. Hatsopoulos, Liam Paninski, Matthew R. Fellows 2002

        Article Recommended

      6. Real-Time Control of a Robot Arm Using Simultaneously Recorded Neurons in the Motor Cortex - John K. Chapin, Karen A. Moxon, Ronald S. Markowitz, Miguel A. L. Nicolelis 1999

        Article Recommended

      7. Visual Prosthesis - Peter H Schiller, Edward J Tehovnik 2008

        Article Recommended

      8. Direct Control of Paralysed Muscles by Cortical Neurons - Chet T. Moritz, Steve I. Perlmutter, Eberhard E. Fetz 2008

        Article Recommended

      9. Opinion: What Blindness Can Tell Us About Seeing Again: Merging Neuroplasticity and Neuroprostheses - Lotfi B. Merabet, Joseph F. Rizzo, Amir Amedi, David C. Somers 2005

        Article Essential

      10. Visual Sensations Produced by Optic Nerve Stimulation Using an Implanted Self-Sizing Spiral Cuff Electrode - Claude Veraart, Christian Raftopoulos, J.Thomas Mortimer, Jean Delbeke 1998

        Article Recommended

  10. The Addicted Brain 17 items
    1. Very General Introductory Reading 1 item
      1. The Chemistry of Behavior - S. Marc Breedlove 2013

        Chapter Essential The chapter is generally relevant, but you will find pages 110 - 124 particularly relevant to the lecture. There are several copies of the textbook available in the library (not available online). If you have other editions of this text they are fine as well although the page numbers will differ – use the lecture content as a guide to which sections you should read.

    2. Review Papers 8 items
      You may want to use these as starting points before reading original research.
      1. Addiction Circuitry in the Human Brain - Nora D. Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang, Joanna S. Fowler, Dardo Tomasi 2012

        Article Recommended

      2. Self-Stimulation of the Brain; Its Use to Study Local Effects of Hunger, Sex, and Drugs - James Olds 1958

        Article Recommended A classic review paper that discusses thinking about self-stimulation shortly after discovery of its effects.

      3. Cannabis and the Brain - L. Iversen 2003

        Article Essential

      4. Mapping of Chemical Trigger Zones for Reward - Satoshi Ikemoto, Roy A. Wise 2004

        Article Recommended

      5. Addiction Circuitry in the Human Brain - Nora D. Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang, Joanna S. Fowler, Dardo Tomasi 2012

        Article Recommended

      6. The Dopamine Theory of Addiction: 40 Years of Highs and Lows - David J. Nutt, Anne Lingford-Hughes, David Erritzoe, Paul R. A. Stokes 2015

        Article Recommended

    3. Original research papers 6 items
      1. Positive Reinforcement Produced by Electrical Stimulation of Septal Area and Other Regions of Rat Brain - James Olds, Peter Milner 1954

        Article Essential This is a classic paper that basically started the field of self-stimulation.

      2. Self-Administration of delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) by Drug Naive Squirrel Monkeys - Zuzana Justinova, Gianluigi Tanda, Godfrey H. Redhi, Steven R. Goldberg 2003

        Article Essential To be read in conjunction with Tanda and Munzar.

    4. Further Reading 2 items
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